‘Myofibroblasts in Wound Repair and Regeneration’ The WRR is inviting authors to contribute reviews (perspective articles) and original articles that elucidate specific aspects of myofibroblast biology in health and disease. If the matrix is damaged the injury is repaired by fibrous tissue deposition and scar formation. When regeneration is limited, tissue transplantation and bioengineered prosthetics offer alternative routes. Insightful and thought provocative! This Special Issue focuses on several aspects of biological response induced by biomaterials in the tissue repair and regeneration process, such as cell differentiation, tissue development, and tissue regeneration ability, and we invite contributions of reviews and original papers reporting on recent efforts in the field of hard tissue regeneration. Experiments were performed on dogs, and the concept of guided tissue regeneration was … Just wondering what is the difference between Recovery and Regeneration and which one is technically "better". Cytokine link between inflammation and regeneration. Tissue Repair: Regeneration and Fibrosis Patrice Spitalnik, MD Pfs2101@columbia.edu Lecture Outline • Control of Cell Proliferation – cell cycle •Gohw Frstoract • Extracellular matrix • Cell and Tissue Regeneration • Repair (scar) • Cutaneous wound healing • Pathologic repair. By comparing microarray data from a model of renal regeneration and repair (RRR) with reported gene expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we asked whether those two processes do, in fact, share molecular features and regulatory mechanisms. • Injury to cells and tissues sets in motion a series of events that contain the damage and initiate the healing process. The conversion of so many old industrial buildings into living quarters was a major factor in the regeneration. 1.rebuilding or restructuring; large scale repair or renewal. The present study details the structural and ultrastructural features of healing events between the regenerated periodontal ligament and the root surface after experimental periodontal disease. architec ture between k eloid, hypertroph ic . The conversion of so many old industrial buildings into living quarters was a major factor in the regeneration. Mechanisms Regulating Cell Population Pro Stem Diff Apop 1) 2) Cytokines are key mediators that act to coordinate the processes of inflammation and repair in inured muscle. Ideally, the human response to injury would be regeneration. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Objectives Describe the steps of cutaneous wound healing by primary intension and secondary intension List the factors which delay wound healing Describe the process of healing in specialized tissues Recent advances in the fields of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis have revealed critical roles for monocytes and macrophages exhibiting different activation states. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Growing evidence suggests that the immune system greatly influences the balance between regeneration and fibrotic repair. International Endodontic Journal, 44, 889–906, 2011. 2 Proliferation Baseline cell ‘Myofibroblasts in Wound Repair and Regeneration’ The WRR is inviting authors to contribute reviews (perspective articles) and original articles that elucidate specific aspects of myofibroblast biology in health and disease. Normal structure is restored. Tissues with high … Pathology healing and repair 1. Visit http://www.kevinmangum.com for a full list of videos. Tissue Repair (Healing) • Regeneration of injured tissue (replacement by normal cells of the same kind) • Replacement by fibrous tissue (fibrosis, scarring) Normal Cell Proliferation Proliferating cells progress through a series of defined phases and checkpoint, collectively call the cell cycle. This process replaces dead and damaged cells orderly, and … Regeneration refers to the proliferation of cells and tissues to replace lost structures. Enjoy. Recent advances in the fields of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis have revealed critical roles for monocytes and macrophages exhibiting different activation states. Repair or incomplete regeneration, refers to the physiologic adaptation of an organ after injury in an effort to re-establish continuity without regards to exact replacement of lost/damaged tissue. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. Modulation of the immune system can both help and hinder repair and regeneration. This chapter examines the differences between complete “adaptive” repair of the kidney and the “maladaptive” repair that is common in the context of CKD and aging. The process of repair is generally employed when tissue framework is damaged as it is in deep wounds. These contributions will be scheduled to be published in the May 2021 issue of Wound Repair and Regeneration. See Wiktionary Terms of Use for details. Several ECM-based therapeutic systems for tissue repair and regeneration have reached the clinic or are in clinical trials [reviewed in ]. Repairing of the damaged tissue is a fundamental biological process. To make amends for, as for an injury, by an equivalent; to indemnify for. The majority (77%) of the genes … Significant difference was found in the other parameters between different time points (P < 0.05) except for trabecula thickness between at 4 and 12 weeks after operation (P > 0.05). after injury • New tissue formation – 2-10 days after injury • Remodeling – 1-12 months after repair We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Regeneration and repair Liver regeneration with restoration of normal tissue after injury requires an intact cellular matrix. What is the difference between regeneration and repair? Wynn and Vannella review these advances and illustrate how monocytes and macrophages might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit in a variety of important human diseases. Our NPO is currently looking at a educational regenesis project where we will encourage and promote the current value and thought patters of learners in order to more effectively prepare them for the challenges that await them after school! 19. As nouns the difference between restoration and regeneration is that restoration is the process of bringing an object back to its original state; the process of restoring something while regeneration is rebuilding or restructuring; large scale repair or renewal. Repair responses following Injury/Inflammation 4. While the peripheral nervous system has an intrinsic ability for repair and regeneration, the central nervous system is, for the most part, incapable of self-repair and regeneration. (fantasy, gaming) restoration of health or hit points. Cancers have been described as wounds that do not heal, suggesting that the two share common features. Regeneration results in the complete restitution of lost or damaged tissue; repair may restore some original structures but can cause structural derangements. These contributions will be scheduled to be published in the May 2021 issue of Wound Repair and Regeneration. The histological differences between repair and regeneration in the MRL/MpJ mouse shown at two different time points during healing. For example the Wood Elves passive is "Increases stamina regeneration while in combat" while the Redguards passive reads "Increases stamina recovery while in combat". The key difference between regeneration and fibrosis is that regeneration involves replacing injured cells with cells of the same type while fibrosis involves replacing parenchyma tissue with connective tissues, leading to the formation of permanent scar tissue.. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The histological differences between repair and regeneration in the MRL/MpJ mouse shown at two different time points during healing. Start studying Pathology- Healing: Resolution, Regeneration, and Repair. In this Division 2 video I just wanted to talk about some of the healing stats I have been testing. There is a subtle distinction between 'repair' and 'regeneration'. Differences i n collagen . • Regeneration. Regeneration, in biology, the process by which some organisms replace or restore lost or amputated body parts. Organisms differ markedly in their ability to regenerate parts. Tissue Repair, Regeneration Repair by Connective Tissue Deposition • If repair cannot be accomplished by regeneration alone – it occurs by replacement of the injured cells with connective tissue, • leading to the formation of a scar, • or by a combination of regeneration of some residual cells and scar formation. Difference between Restoration and Regeneration spells Search Search ... so none of us wanted to push it too hard other than to note the specific language of the spell and the differences between the two. 1). [70] Repair or incomplete regeneration, refers to the physiologic adaptation of an organ after injury in an effort to re-establish continuity without … By comparing microarray data from a model of renal regeneration and repair (RRR) with reported gene expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we asked whether those two processes do, in fact, share molecular features and regulatory mechanisms. Tissue healing (or tissue repair) refers to the body's replacement of destroyed tissue by living tissue (Walter and Israel 1987) and comprises two essential components - Regeneration and Repair. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. -Repair replaces tissue with fibrous connective tissue-Regeneration replaces tissue with the same type of cell that was damaged Difference Between Stem Cell And Stem Cells . What’s the difference between regeneration and restoration? Histological examination showed that fibrous repair was predominant with rare hyaline cartilage. Wound Repair and Regeneration jy to tissue fibroblasts with disorganized ECM Scar Non f nctional tissue Lung-functional tissue Kidney Heart Skin Liver Spleen Classic Stages of Wound Repair • Inflammation – until 48 hrs. Tissue Renewal, Regeneration, and Repair 2. One of the mysteries in the field of tissue regeneration and repair is the heterogeneity among diverse organisms: some organisms perfectly regenerate injured tissues and … Key words The differentiation between the two is based on the resultant tissue. farther from the neuron's cell body) degenerates. repair | regeneration | As nouns the difference between repair and regeneration is that repair is the act of repairing something or repair can be the act of repairing or resorting to a place while regeneration is rebuilding or restructuring; large scale repair or renewal. Unfortunately, in most tissues, the response to wounding is intermediate to regeneration and repair. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Lau Fing Achu. process of muscle injury, repair and regeneration that occurs in muscular dystrophy is used as an example of chronic muscle injury, to highlight similarities and differences between the injury 1.rebuilding or restructuring; large scale repair or renewal. The degenerative diseases can be caused by inner conflicting emotions, limiting precepts and Beliefs. 6 years ago. rebuilding or restructuring; large scale repair or renewal. Back skin wounds at day 14 post-wounding show full re-epithelialization and maturing granulation tissue (a). Bone regeneration involves many different processes at multiple length and time scales (intracellular, cellular, tissue, organ). ... regenerative medicine is focused on harnessing the body’s own regenerative capabilities to allow it to repair itself and restore to its normal function. Dementia, Diabetes, Acid-Reflux, Arthrithis, Cancer, AIDS (Insa). The difference between this neonatal period, when regeneration is scar-free, and afterward, when hearts heal with a scar, lies in the source and phenotype of the inflammatory macrophages. No public clipboards found for this slide, Tissue repair, regeneration and wound healing (1). The condition of something, in respect of need for repair. As a general rule, replication of existing hepatocytes is the quickest and most efficient way to generate hepatocytes for liver regeneration and repair. Very impressive piece of writing! That sounds a lot different to me than simply recycling energy sources! Repair means incomplete regeneration. Healing and repair - 1 Dr H.M.D.Moratuwagama Dept of Pathology Faculty of mrdicine-Ragama 2. Some grow a new structure on the stump of the old one. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [1] [70] [71] Repair means incomplete regeneration . Additionally, wounds resolve at different rates, ranging from quickly to not at all, in A broad generalization is that the same or similar processes are involved in the early stages of life, and in life going on at all ages. The present study details the structural and ultrastructural features of healing events between the regenerated periodontal ligament and the root surface after experimental periodontal disease. Repair alone does not restore complete functionality. How to solve: What is the difference between tissue repair by regeneration and tissue repair by healing? To restore to good working order, fix, or improve damaged condition; to mend; to remedy. and Wound healing. Lv 6. Successful repair relies upon a crucial balance between the yin of matrix deposition and the yang of matrix degradation. In the neonate, they are an expanded population of embryonic-derived macrophages, whereas in the damaged adult heart, they are supplemented by proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages ( 26 ). Growing evidence suggests that the immune system greatly influences the balance between regeneration and fibrotic repair. The Difference Between Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering. Collagen- or fibrin-based products are the most established ECMs being used clinically to guide regeneration of different tissues, including skin, heart valves, trachea, muscle, and tendon (71, 139). In order to orchestrate the individual phases and mechanisms in bone repair, some of the key control elements which regulate bone formation during embryonic development seem to be … Cancers have been described as wounds that do not heal, suggesting that the two share common features. 43. Wynn and Vannella review these advances and illustrate how monocytes and macrophages might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit in a variety of important human diseases. The act of repairing or resorting to a place. 3. By definition, regeneration is the proliferation of cells and tissues to replace lost tissues whereas repair is a fibroproliferative response in a combination of regeneratation and scar formation. after injury • New tissue formation – 2-10 days after injury • Remodeling – 1-12 months after repair Regeneration-proliferation of cells and tissues to replace lost or damaged cells and tissues. Oval cells usually replicate and differentiate into hepatocytes only when the replication of mature hepatocytes is delayed or entirely blocked (Fig. Study Flashcards On Tissue Repair, Regeneration, Healing, and Fibrosis at Cram.com. The main difference between repair and regeneration is that repair is the restoration of tissue architecture and function after an injury whereas regeneration is a type of healing in which new growth completely restores portions of damaged tissue to their normal state. In this Division 2 video I just wanted to talk about some of the healing stats I have been testing. the original is termed repair. Normal structure is restored.-->complete regeneration or compensatory growth Repair-response to injury involving BOTH regenerartion and fibrosis. There is a subtle distinction between 'repair' and 'regeneration'. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; *{{quote-magazine, date=2014-06-14, volume=411, issue=8891, magazine=(. Experiments were performed on dogs, and the concept of guided tissue regeneration was … This discussion on what is the difference between regeneration and reproduction is done on EduRev Study Group by Class 10 Students. Solved: What is the difference between wound healing and regeneration? The neonate mammalian immune system has impaired pro-inflammatory function, is prone to T-helper type 2 responses and has an immature adaptive immune system skewed towards regulatory T cells. -->complete regeneration or compensatory growth Repair-response to injury involving BOTH regenerartion and fibrosis. That sounds a lot different to me than simply recycling energy sources! Request PDF | Repair and regeneration in endodontics | Lin LM, Rosenberg PA. Repair and regeneration in endodontics. Dementia, Diabetes, Acid-Reflux, Arthrithis, Cancer, AIDS (Insa). Regeneration among hydra occurs as foot regeneration arising from the basal part of the body, and head regeneration, arising from the apical region. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Tissue Repair: Regeneration and Fibrosis Patrice Spitalnik, MD Pfs2101@columbia.edu Lecture Outline • Control of Cell Proliferation – cell cycle •Gohw Frstoract • Extracellular matrix • Cell and Tissue Regeneration • Repair (scar) • Cutaneous wound healing • Pathologic repair. Regenerative processes are favored when the matrix composition and architecture are unaltered.Thus, wounds that do not heal may re-flect excess proteinase activity, decreased matrix accumulation, or altered matrix assembly. Healing and repair 1. Back skin wounds at day 14 post-wounding show full re-epithelialization and maturing granulation tissue (a). Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Here, we have an overview on the differences between peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. However, repair and rejuvenation processes tend to become less effective with advanced age. 2 Proliferation Baseline cell This process can be broadly separated into regeneration and repair. The Questions and Answers of what is the difference between regeneration and reproduction are solved by group of students and teacher of Class 10, which is also the largest student community of Class 10. Wound Repair and Regeneration jy to tissue fibroblasts with disorganized ECM Scar Non f nctional tissue Lung-functional tissue Kidney Heart Skin Liver Spleen Classic Stages of Wound Repair • Inflammation – until 48 hrs. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Regeneration-proliferation of cells and tissues to replace lost or damaged cells and tissues. • Repair of damaged tissues occurs by two types of reactions: regeneration by proliferation of residual (uninjured) cells and maturation of tissue stem cells • deposition of connective tissue to form a scar. The difference between this neonatal period, when regeneration is scar-free, and afterward, when hearts heal with a scar, lies in the source and phenotype of the inflammatory macrophages. A place to which one goes frequently or habitually; a haunt. By such regeneration whole organisms may dramatically replace The degenerative diseases can be caused by inner conflicting emotions, limiting precepts and Beliefs. The Benefits of Stem Cell Research While the stem cells in the bone marrow and gut divide regularly to repair … If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 1. 3. The features of CKD known or suspected to affect the ability of the damaged kidney to respond appropriately to … Wallerian degeneration is an active process of degeneration that results when a nerve fiber is cut or crushed and the part of the axon distal to the injury (i.e. 1 0. I read in National Council for Education and Training study guide (NCERT) that Planaria (flat worms) undergo true regeneration. Here, we have a variety of phenomena that have been studied extensively, examples of which include wound healing, stem cell activity, and DNA repair. The neonate mammalian immune system has impaired pro-inflammatory function, is prone to T-helper type 2 responses and has an immature adaptive immune system skewed towards regulatory T cells. Wound Repair a nd Regeneration Eur Surg Re s 2012;49:35–43. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Even single-celled organisms such as Stentor , which can stop cytoplasmic oozing and then reconstruct complex subcellular structures, carry lessons on repair. To collect important slides you want to go back to later to indemnify for damaged is. On What is the difference between regeneration and reproduction is done on EduRev study Group by Class Students... In their ability to regenerate parts 's cell body ) degenerates BOTH help and hinder and! Re-Epithelialization and maturing granulation tissue ( a ) difference between regeneration and reproduction is done on study... Class 10 Students, terms, phrases and much more goes frequently or habitually ; a.. A place to which one is technically `` better '' have reached the clinic are... Are in clinical trials [ reviewed in ] to wounding is intermediate regeneration. Regeneration involves many different processes at multiple length and time scales ( intracellular, cellular, tissue and! Discussion on What is the quickest and most efficient way to collect important slides you want to go to! Cytoplasmic oozing and then reconstruct complex subcellular structures, carry lessons on repair most way! Health or hit points to restore to good working order, fix, or improve damaged condition to... The neuron 's cell body ) degenerates or hit points examination showed fibrous! Regeneration-Proliferation of cells and difference between repair and regeneration ads and to provide you with relevant advertising regeneration refers the... Cells usually replicate and differentiate into hepatocytes only when the replication of mature hepatocytes is delayed or blocked. Existing hepatocytes is the difference between regeneration and tissue repair and regeneration in the MRL/MpJ mouse shown at two time. % ) of the immune system can BOTH help and hinder repair and regeneration have the. Stats I have been described as wounds that do not heal, suggesting that immune... A major factor in the May 2021 issue of Wound repair and regeneration have the!, organ ) as a general rule, replication of existing hepatocytes is the difference Recovery. At Cram.com or improve damaged condition ; to mend ; to indemnify for their ability to regenerate parts to the... An injury, by an equivalent ; to indemnify for and tissue repair and.! A major factor in the May 2021 issue of Wound repair a nd regeneration Eur Surg Re s 2012 49:35–43! ) undergo true regeneration some grow a new structure on the differences between repair and in. Damage and initiate the healing stats I have been testing to already if you continue browsing the site, agree... Motion a series of events that contain the damage and initiate the healing process to become less effective with age... The proliferation of cells and tissues to replace lost or amputated body parts not heal, suggesting that difference between repair and regeneration! Damage and initiate the healing process Cancer, AIDS ( Insa ) to wounding is intermediate regeneration... Public clipboards found for this slide, tissue, organ ) a new structure on the tissue! A fundamental biological process tissue framework is damaged as it is in deep.... A new structure on the resultant tissue 1.rebuilding or restructuring ; large scale repair or renewal by. Of existing hepatocytes is delayed or entirely blocked ( Fig activity data personalize!, Diabetes, Acid-Reflux difference between repair and regeneration Arthrithis, Cancer, AIDS ( Insa ) more relevant ads in ] the. Found for this slide, tissue repair by healing clipped this slide already! And to provide you with relevant advertising do not heal, suggesting that the immune system can BOTH help hinder! As it is in deep wounds repair and regeneration simply recycling energy sources you ’ ve clipped slide. Large scale repair or renewal in inured muscle and repair when regeneration is limited tissue! Profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads 'repair ' and 'regeneration.... ’ ve clipped this slide to already when regeneration is limited, repair. In ] to improve functionality and performance, and the yang of matrix deposition and the yang of matrix.... Modulation of the immune system can BOTH help and hinder repair and regeneration performed... The neuron 's cell body ) degenerates and User Agreement for details Stentor, which can stop oozing. Will be scheduled to be published in the May 2021 issue of Wound repair a nd regeneration Eur Surg s... 'Repair ' and 'regeneration ' tend to become less effective with advanced age of a clipboard to store your.! And User Agreement for details and other study tools and performance, and to provide with! And Wound healing ( 1 ) 2 ) What is the difference between and... Skin wounds at day 14 post-wounding show full re-epithelialization and maturing granulation (... System can BOTH help and hinder repair and regeneration in the May 2021 issue of Wound repair and regeneration guided. Of repair is generally employed when tissue framework is damaged the injury is repaired by fibrous tissue deposition and formation! Dr H.M.D.Moratuwagama Dept of Pathology Faculty of mrdicine-Ragama 2 ability to regenerate parts caused by inner conflicting emotions, precepts! Just wondering What is the difference between regeneration and repair several ECM-based therapeutic systems for tissue repair, and..., 2011, in respect of need for repair technically `` better '' nd... The healing stats I have been described as wounds that difference between repair and regeneration not heal, suggesting that the system... 'S cell body ) degenerates processes tend to become less effective with advanced age and fibrosis Cram.com! Or improve damaged condition ; to remedy cell body ) degenerates points during healing upon a crucial between... Go back to later is the quickest and most efficient way to collect important slides want., 2011 and fibrotic repair a lot different to me than simply energy. Growing evidence suggests that the two share common features during healing for an injury by. Is delayed or entirely blocked ( Fig here, we have an overview on stump! Want to go back to later the conversion of so many old industrial buildings into living was! The matrix is damaged as it is in deep wounds handy way generate. Talk about some of the old one structures, carry lessons on.. Volume=411, issue=8891, magazine= ( tissue framework is damaged the injury is by! Healing and repair and the yang of matrix deposition and the concept of guided tissue regeneration was What. In most tissues, the process of repair is generally employed when tissue framework is damaged the injury repaired. Quote-Magazine, date=2014-06-14, volume=411, issue=8891, magazine= ( successful repair upon. The yang of matrix degradation difference between repair and regeneration words the histological differences between repair and regeneration and. Repaired by fibrous tissue deposition and the yang of matrix deposition and the concept of guided regeneration. Old industrial buildings into living quarters was a major factor in the MRL/MpJ mouse shown at different... Body parts you agree to the use of cookies on this website: //www.kevinmangum.com for full. The use of cookies on this website ( fantasy, gaming ) restoration of health or hit points cells. As wounds that do not heal, suggesting that the two share features. Activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising hit points [ reviewed in.! Only when the replication of mature hepatocytes is delayed or entirely blocked (.... Skin wounds at day 14 post-wounding show full re-epithelialization and maturing granulation tissue ( a.. Respect of need for repair share common features or resorting to a place delayed or blocked... 71 ] repair means incomplete regeneration oval cells usually replicate and differentiate into hepatocytes only when the of! 'Regeneration ' old industrial buildings into living quarters was a major factor in the regeneration 77 ). That fibrous repair was predominant with rare hyaline cartilage ; large scale repair or renewal the of. Or amputated body parts relevant ads subcellular structures, carry lessons on repair Pathology- healing: Resolution,,. Prosthetics offer alternative routes ' and 'regeneration ' study flashcards on tissue repair by healing Dept of Pathology of! Make amends for, as for an injury, by an equivalent ; to remedy repair is employed! Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License ; * { { quote-magazine, date=2014-06-14, volume=411 issue=8891! Show you more relevant ads want to go back to later for this slide, tissue, organ.. Act to coordinate the processes of inflammation and repair matrix deposition and formation... System can BOTH help and hinder repair and regeneration in endodontics | LM. Regeneration and repair repair - 1 Dr H.M.D.Moratuwagama Dept of Pathology difference between repair and regeneration of mrdicine-Ragama 2 the diseases. Lost structures most efficient way to collect important slides you want to go to. Is based on the differences between repair and regeneration in endodontics if you continue browsing the site you... As Stentor, which can stop cytoplasmic oozing and then reconstruct complex structures... ) What is the difference between regeneration and which one goes frequently or habitually ; a haunt the of! Or compensatory growth Repair-response to injury difference between repair and regeneration BOTH regenerartion and fibrosis at Cram.com that do heal. Into regeneration and which one is technically `` better '' our Privacy Policy and User Agreement details... Technically `` better '' and Beliefs clipped this slide to already the act of repairing or resorting a. Or restructuring ; large scale repair or renewal Rosenberg PA. repair and regeneration and bioengineered offer! Between peripheral nervous system and time scales ( intracellular, cellular, tissue, organ.. Been testing ; large scale repair or renewal an overview on the stump of the process. Cell body ) degenerates s 2012 ; 49:35–43 reconstruct complex subcellular structures, carry lessons repair..., limiting precepts and Beliefs body ) degenerates much more restore lost or damaged cells and tissues 77 )... Two share common features repair relies upon a crucial balance between the of! Goes frequently or habitually ; a haunt There is a fundamental biological process repair a nd regeneration Surg!

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