However, this action should "not simply follow spiritual injunctions", without any attachment to personal rewards or because of craving for fruits. [note 12], Some translators have variously titled the first chapter as Arjuna vishada yoga, Prathama Adhyaya, The Distress of Arjuna, The War Within, or Arjuna's Sorrow. Thus Gita discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism: enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism.  Others consider it as a progressive stage or a combination of Karma yoga and Bhakti yoga. The Lord, states Chatterjee, created millions and millions of people, and he did not ordain dharma only for Indians [Hindus] and "make all the others dharma-less", for "are not the non-Hindus also his children"? , The Upanishads developed the equation "Atman = Brahman", states Fowler, and this belief is central to the Gita. [note 6] This suggests a terminus ante quem (latest date) of the Gita to be sometime prior to the 1st century CE.  The 13th chapter of the Gita offers the clearest enunciation of the Samkhya philosophy, states Basham, by explaining the difference between field (material world) and the knower (soul), prakriti and purusha. He describes the difference between transient perishable physical body (kshetra) and the immutable eternal soul (kshetrajna). Every being has an impermanent body and an eternal soul, and that "Krishna as Lord" lives within every creature. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad.  Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas). It is more likely that the works of multiple writers were combined into one.  This theme has led scholars to call the Gita as panentheistic, theistic and monistic.  Shankara interprets the Gita in a monist, nondualistic tradition (Advaita Vedanta). The version by A.C. Bhaktivēdānta Swāmi Prabhupāda, entitled.  To build its theological framework about the world, the text relies on the theories found in Samkhya and Vedanta schools of Hinduism. You will be very near to Almighty! Krishna is presented as a teacher who "drives Arjuna and the reader beyond initial preconceptions". In India, its Sanskrit name is often written as Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता (the latter two words often written as a single word भगवद्गीता), where the Shrimad prefix is used to denote a high degree of respect.  Modi gave a copy of it to the then President of the United States of America, Barack Obama in 2014 during his U.S. , According to Edwin Bryant, the Indologist with publications on Krishna-related Hindu traditions, the Gita rejects "actionless behavior" found in some Indic monastic traditions. , The Gita rejects ascetic life, renunciation as well as Brahminical Vedic ritualism where outwardly actions or non-action are considered a means of personal rewards in this life, after-life or a means of liberation.  According to Chatterjee, the Hindus already understand the meaning of that term. The actual dates of composition of the Gita remain unresolved.  The word Vyasa literally means "arranger, compiler", and is a surname in India. Academic commentaries include those by Jeaneane Fowler, A collection of Christian commentaries on the, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 07:01. , According to Jeaneane Fowler, "the dating of the Gita varies considerably" and depends in part on whether one accepts it to be a part of the early versions of the Mahabharata, or a text that was inserted into the epic at a later date.  The fifteenth chapter expounds on Krishna theology, in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism.  The Brahma sutras constitute the Nyāya prasthāna or the "starting point of reasoning canonical base", while the principal Upanishads constitute the Sruti prasthāna or the "starting point of heard scriptures", and the Bhagavad Gita constitutes the Smriti prasthāna or the "starting point of remembered canonical base". In 1849, the Weleyan Mission Press, Bangalore published The Bhagavat-Geeta, Or, Dialogues of Krishna and Arjoon in Eighteen Lectures, with Sanskrit, Canarese and English in parallel columns, edited by Rev. A synthesis of knowledge, devotion, and desireless action is offered by Krishna as a spectrum of choices to Arjuna; the same combination is suggested to the reader as a way to moksha.  He sees that some among his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends, and revered teachers. How Does the 25th Amendment Work — and When Should It Be Enacted? Most personalities I know … , Few verses in the Bhagavad Gita deal with dharma, according to the Indologist Paul Hacker, but the theme of dharma is important in it.  Aurobindo saw Bhagavad Gita as a "scripture of the future religion" and suggested that Hinduism had acquired a much wider relevance through the Gita. The name, Bhagavad Gita, means Song of the Lord. As the conversion between Lord Krishna and Arjun continued, it was narrated by Sanjay to the blind king Dhritarashtra, who was in the palace. , Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it.  Thomas Merton, the Trappist monk and author of books on Zen Buddhism, concurs with Gandhi and states that the Gita is not teaching violence nor propounding a "make war" ideology. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. Scholars believe it probably dates somewhere between the 5th and 2nd century B.C.E., and may have been written by the sage, Vyasa. , According to Gambhirananda, the old manuscripts may have had 745 verses, though he agrees that 700 verses is the generally accepted historic standard.  Krishna answers. It was translated into French in 1846 by Lassens and it was translated into Greek in 1848 by Galanos to mention but a few.  Krishna states that Arjuna has an obligation to understand and perform his duty (dharma), because everything is connected by the law of cause and effect. What Does George Soros' Open Society Foundations Network Fund?  According to theologian Christopher Southgate, verses of this chapter of the Gita are panentheistic, while German physicist and philosopher Max Bernhard Weinstein deems the work pandeistic.  Vivekananda states, "when we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil".  He can be projected as "a merciful father, a divine mother, a wise friend, a passionate beloved, or even a mischievous child", according to Easwaran. The Bhagavad-gita is universally well-known as the ornament of Indias spiritual wisdom.  According to Huston Smith, the Gita is teaching that "when one sees the entire universe as pervaded by the single Universal Spirit [Krishna], one contemplates, marvels, and falls in love with its amazing glory. For Dnyaneshwar, people err when they see themselves distinct from each other and Krishna, and these distinctions vanish as soon as they accept, understand and enter with love unto Krishna. Since the Bhagavad-Gita was given to the sun-god Visvasvan before the current Vaisvasvatu Manu was born then it can be understood that the Bhagavad-Gita was spoken to him at least 120 million 400 thousands years ago.  According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". [web 4]. Who wrote Bhagavad Gita A few years later, Sage Vedvyas wrote this nectar-knowledge of Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit language in Devanagri script.  According to Winthrop Sargeant, the text acknowledges that some individuals are more reflective and intellectual, some affective and engaged by their emotions, some are action driven, yet others favor experimenting and exploring what works. According to Upadhyaya, the Gita states that none of these paths to spiritual realization are "intrinsically superior or inferior", rather they "converge in one and lead to the same goal". The Gita text he commented on, is slightly different recension than the one of Adi Shankara. Krishna discusses the nature of God, according to Easwaran, wherein Krishna not only transcends impermanent body (matter), he also transcends the atman (soul) in every being. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna. T. S. Eliot (1888-1965) had some knowledge and regard for the Upanishads, which are the storehouse of the invaluable perennial treasures of human wisdom, and some of his poems reflect the message of the Upanishads. [note 20] Vinoba Bhave has written the Geeta in Marathi language as Geetai i.e. , The Gita praises the path, calling the jnana yogin to be exceedingly dear to Krishna, but adds that the path is steep and difficult.  To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer, and karma yoga is the path of selfless action.  For Gandhi, states Vajpeyi, ahimsa is the "relationship between self and other" while he and his fellow Indians battled against the colonial rule.  According to Flood and Martin, chapter 3 and onwards develops "a theological response to Arjuna's dilemma".  The chapter starts by presenting the tension in the Indian tradition between the life of sannyasa (monks who have renounced their household and worldly attachments) and the life of grihastha (householder).  The Bhagavad Gita is often preserved and studied on its own, as an independent text with its chapters renumbered from 1 to 18.  The most significant French translation of the Gita, according to J. This Absolute in Gita is neither a He nor a She, but a "neuter principle", an "It or That".  According to Paul Schaffel the influential Hindu nationalist V.D. Before Mahatma Gandhi came on the scene, he was at the forefront of the freedom struggle of India. , Bhagavad Gita integrates various schools of thought, notably Vedanta, Samkhya and Yoga, and other theistic ideas.  The text blurs any distinction between the personalized God and impersonal Absolute Reality by amalgamating their equivalence, using it interchangeably in the later chapters. A. Steven Pressfield acknowledges that the Gita was his inspiration, the golfer character in his novel is Arjuna, the caddie is Krishna, states Rosen.  Further, states Hirst, the Gita should be seen as a "unitary text" in its entirety rather than a particular verse analyzed separately or out of context. Bhagavad Gita 9.1. They are free within, always. " The Udyoga Parva presents many views about the nature of a warrior, his duty and what calls for heroic action. The debate about the relationship between the, According to Basham, passionately theistic verses are found, for example, in chapters 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14.1–6 with 14.29, 15, 18.54–78; while more philosophical verses with one or two verses where Krishna identifies himself as the highest god are found, for example, in chapters 2.38–72, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13 and 14.7–25, 16, 17 and 18.1–53. ", According to Dennis Hudson, there is an overlap between Vedic and Tantric rituals with the teachings found in the Bhagavad Gita.  According to Zaehner, the term dharma means "duty" in Gita's context, in verse 2.7 refers to the "right [and wrong]", and in 14.27 to "eternal law of righteousness". but those who work without expecting reward It is unclear when exactly the Mahabharata was first written, although it is known that the Gita was a later addition to it and that it did not appear in its present form until around 400 CE. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. Even a monk should strive for the "inner renunciation", rather than external pretensions. , Linguistically, the Bhagavad Gita is in classical Sanskrit of the early variety, states the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant. He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. It re-emphasizes the karma-phala-tyaga teaching, or "act while renouncing the fruits of your action".  This chapter contains eschatology of the Bhagavad Gita. In the last eight verses of this chapter, Krishna states that he loves those who have compassion for all living beings, are content with whatever comes their way, who live a detached life that is impartial and selfless, unaffected by fleeting pleasure or pain, neither craving for praise nor depressed by criticism. [note 24], Ralph Waldo Emerson, remarked the following after his first study of the Gita, and thereafter frequently quoted the text in his journals and letters, particularly the "work with inner renunciation" idea in his writings on man's quest for spiritual energy:, I owed – my friend and I owed – a magnificent day to the Bhagavad Geeta.  Chapter 5 shows signs of interpolations and internal contradictions. The Bhagavad Gita is an evolving response dealing with the conflicts between the Vedas and the Vedantas. For B.G. :514 According to Larson, there is "a massive translational tradition in English, pioneered by the British, solidly grounded philologically by the French and Germans, provided with its indigenous roots by a rich heritage of modern Indian comment and reflection, extended into various disciplinary areas by Americans, and having generated in our time a broadly based cross-cultural awareness of the importance of the Bhagavad Gita both as an expression of a specifically Indian spirituality and as one of the great religious "classics" of all time. There are many philosophers who write comments on the Bhagavad-gita but have no faith in Krsna. , "The Field of Dharma" is also called the "Field of action" by Sri Aurobindo, a freedom fighter and philosopher. A.  According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. B. van Buitenen, was published by Emile Senart in 1922. , According to J. It openly synthesizes and inclusively accepts multiple ways of life, harmonizing spiritual pursuits through action (karma), knowledge (gyaana), and devotion (bhakti). He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why.  Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious". Lajpat Rai wrote an article on the "Message of the Bhagavad Gita". , The Gita presents its teaching in the context of a war where the warrior Arjuna is in inner crisis about whether he should renounce and abandon the battlefield, or fight and kill. This is how the flower of devotion evolves into the fruit of knowledge. It is born, grows, matures, decays and dies. , Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. Mother Geeta in the similar shloka form.  According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita builds on the Upanishadic Brahman theme, conceptualized to be that which is everywhere, unaffected, constant Absolute, indescribable and nirguna (abstract, without features). , The Bhagavad Gita is a poem written in the Sanskrit language. While Duryodhana presents it as a matter of status, social norms, and fate, Vidura states that the heroic warrior never submits, knows no fear and has the duty to protect people. The presentation explains the difference between ahamkara (ego) and atman (soul), from there between individual consciousness and universal consciousness. He states that the Gita was always a part of the Mahabharata, and dating the latter suffices in dating the Gita. Vallabha the proponent of "Suddhadvaita" or pure non-dualism, wrote a commentary on the Gita, the "Sattvadipika". J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original form, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. Abhinavagupta's commentary is notable for its citations of more ancient scholars, in a style similar to Adi Shankara. Bhakti is the most important means of attaining liberation. The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being.  The chapter opens with Arjuna asking questions such as what is Brahman and what is the nature of karma. It discusses who is a true yogi, and what it takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice towards anyone. This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita. Reading this book as an open-minded person, not clinging to the faith of any particular religion was definitely one reason I could enjoy the thoughts and perspective presented in this book. Gajanan Shripat Khair, who researched for 43 years on Bhagavad Gita, concluded in his book ‘Quest for the original Gita‘ that infact it was written by 3 persons over 400 years and that is why narrative lacks continuity. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? ", The Bhagavad Gita has been highly praised, not only by prominent Indians including Mahatma Gandhi and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, but also by Aldous Huxley, Henry David Thoreau, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Carl Jung, Herman Hesse, and Bülent Ecevit.. An abridged version with 42 verses and commentary was published by. Arjuna requests Krishna to move the chariot between the two armies so he can see those "eager for this war". If we google this question we get Sage Vyasa as answer and that what I have learned growing up. , Dharma is a prominent paradigm of the Mahabharata, and it is referenced in the Gita as well. ":518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms".  Some of the ideas in the Bhagavad Gita connect it to the Shatapatha Brahmana of Yajurveda. Who is Krishna?  For some native translators, their personal beliefs, motivations, and subjectivity affect their understanding, their choice of words and interpretation. Importance of the last thought before death, differences between material and spiritual worlds, and light and dark paths that a soul takes after death are described.. He was the one who compiled the Mahabharata which includes Gita. In this context, the Gita advises Arjuna to do his holy duty (sva-dharma) as a warrior, fight and kill. The Bhagavad Gita is the title of Winthrop Sargeant's translation, first published in 1979, of the Bhagavad Gītā (Sanskrit: भगवद्गीता, "Song of God"), an important Hindu scripture. [note 7], According to Arthur Basham, the context of the Bhagavad Gita suggests that it was composed in an era when the ethics of war were being questioned and renunciation to monastic life was becoming popular. The verses 6.10 and after proceed to summarize the principles of Yoga and meditation in the format similar to but simpler than Patanjali's Yogasutra. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal soul in each person (Self), universal soul present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts. , According to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the object of the Gita is to show the way to attain self-realization, and this "can be achieved by selfless action, by desireless action; by renouncing fruits of action; by dedicating all activities to God, i.e., by surrendering oneself to Him body and soul."  Ramanuja's disagreed with Adi Shankara's interpretation of the Gita as a text on nondualism (Self and Brahman are identical), and instead interpreted it as a form of dualistic and qualified monism philosophy (Vishishtadvaita). He interprets its teachings in the Shaiva Advaita (monism) tradition quite similar to Adi Shankara, but with the difference that he considers both soul and matter to be metaphysically real and eternal. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the word of God" by the theistic schools, "the words of the Lord", "the Divine Song", and "Celestial Song" by others.  While the year and century is uncertain, states Richard Davis, the internal evidence in the text dates the origin of the Gita discourse to the Hindu lunar month of Margashirsha (also called Agrahayana, generally December or January of the Gregorian calendar). An authentic manuscript of the Gita with 745 verses has not been found.  Sir Edwin Arnold titled this chapter in his 1885 translation as "The Distress of Arjuna".  In the Bhagavad Gita, it is also referred to as buddhi yoga and its goal is self-realization. [web 1][note 2], The Bhagavad Gita is the best known and most famous of Hindu texts, with a unique pan-Hindu influence. The Indologist Robert Minor, and others,[web 1] in contrast, state the Gita is "more clearly defined as a synthesis of Vedanta, Yoga and Samkhya" philosophies of Hinduism. He wrote the introduction to Bhagavad Gita, the Song of God (1944), translated by Swami Prabhavananda and Isherwood.  He recognised in the concept of sva-dharma his idea of svadeshi (sometimes spelled swadeshi), the idea that "man owes his service above all to those who are nearest to him by birth and situation. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. Scholars accept dates from the fifth century to the second century BCE as the probable range, the latter likely. Then you see the miracle!  He cites similar quotes in the Dharmasutra texts, the Brahma sutras, and other literature to conclude that the Bhagavad Gita was composed in the fifth or fourth century BCE.  Its 700 verses are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the principal being the shloka (Anushtubh chanda). Most people were silent. 14th Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi called the Bhagavad Gita "India's biggest gift to the world". From the beginning of life Arjuna was a spiritual traveler undertaking inner journey all the time. , In the Gita, Krishna persuades Arjuna to wage war where the enemy includes some of his own relatives and friends. The Bhagavad Gita, perhaps the most famous of all Indian scriptures, is universally regarded as one of the world’s spiritual and literary masterpieces. [note 19], The translations and interpretations of the Gita have been so diverse that these have been used to support apparently contradictory political and philosophical values.  Mahatma Gandhi memorized the last 19 verses of the second chapter, considering them as his companion in his non-violent movement for social justice during the colonial rule.  Hindus have their own understanding of dharma that goes much beyond the Gita or any particular Hindu text. 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